Public debt the risks and consequences of unsustainable policies 

economic instability


Public debt is a major economic problem that affects many countries all over the world. It is the total amount of money a country’s government owes to creditors, both inside and outside the country. Even though the government often needs to borrow money to pay public projects and invest in infrastructure, having too much public debt can hurt a country’s economy in many ways, such as making it less competitive, causing inflation, causing a recession, or even causing the country to go bankrupt.

In this piece, we’ll talk about the risks and effects of public debt policies that can’t be kept up, as well as why it’s important to keep a responsible fiscal approach, especially in today’s volatile and uncertain economy.

Understanding Public Debt

The amount of money the government owes to banks, companies, and other governments is called its “public debt.” It includes both the amount due to creditors in the same country and to creditors in other countries. Most of the time, the government borrows money by selling bonds, treasury bills, and other financial instruments to investors on the national or foreign markets.

Most of the time, the amount of public debt is shown as a portion of a country’s GDP. This shows how much debt the government has compared to how big its economy is. High public debt ratios show that the government borrows a lot to pay for its costs, while low ratios show that the government is good with money and has conservative spending policies.

Public debt poses a lot of risks.

Too much public debt can hurt a country’s business in a number of ways, such as:

Interest payments have gone up.
When a country’s public debt is high, it has to pay its creditors more in interest. This can take up a big chunk of the budget, which leaves less money for other public projects. In the worst cases, a country can get stuck in a debt trap, where it has to borrow more money to pay off its current debt, which leads to a cycle of more debt.

Lessening of competition

A country with a lot of state debt can also be less competitive on the world market. If a country has a lot of debt, buyers may be less likely to put money into its businesses and industries. Also, a country with a lot of public debt may raise taxes on its people and companies, making it more expensive to do business there.


When the value of money goes down, prices for goods and services go up. This is called inflation. The government often prints more money to pay off its bills, which adds to the amount of money in circulation and makes inflation worse. When the amount of money goes up, the value of the currency goes down, which makes inflation rates go up. Inflation can be bad for a country in many ways, like making it harder to buy things and making the economy unstable.


High public debt can also cause the economy to slow down or go into a slump. When the government borrows too much, the private sector has less money to borrow. This can slow spending and slow the growth of the economy. This could lead to the loss of jobs, a drop in customer confidence, and a drop in GDP, among other bad things.

Effects of public debt that can’t be paid back

Forced measures of austerity

When a country’s public debt gets too high, the government is often pushed to cut spending and balance the budget by doing things like cutting public services and social welfare programmes. Such actions can have terrible effects on people, especially those who depend on these programmes for their income and health.


In the worst cases, a country may not pay its debts, which can be terrible for the business and people of that country. Default happens when a government can’t pay back its debts, which makes people lose faith in its ability to handle its funds. This could cause the country’s credit rating to go down, which would make it more expensive to borrow money in the future.

Financial Crisis

High public debt can also cause a financial crisis, which is when the value of a country’s currency and assets drops quickly, causing its financial system to fail. Financial disasters can have very bad effects, like a lot of people losing their jobs, the economy producing less, and people fighting with each other.

Effects that will be bad for future generations
A state debt policy that can’t be kept up can also affect people in the future. If the government borrows money now, it will be up to future generations to pay back that loan. This can lower the standard of living for people in the future, who may have to pay more taxes or give up public services to pay off these bills.


In conclusion, public debt is a big economic problem that needs careful financial management and policies that can last. High public debt can cause a number of risks and problems, such as higher interest payments, less competitiveness, inflation, recession, forced austerity measures, failure, a financial crisis, and bad effects on future generations. For long-term economic stability and prosperity for their people, governments need to spend money wisely and avoid borrowing too much.



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